The Providence runner crosses the line in a personal best time of 15:10 to claim victory.
Molly Huddle is the favorite to win on the roads of Providence, R.I., where she lives and trains.
The race adjacent to Central Park featured fast times and photo finishes.
The American is seeking her third victory at the annual dash in New York City.
The 18-year-old won the world junior 3000m title in July.
The 18-year-old American finished in a personal best 8:58.48 at Hayward Field.
The 18-year-old American will kick off the meet, held in Eugene, Ore., with Thursday’s 3000m.
Rupp broke his old U.S. mark of 26:48.00 with a solo last 800m in 1:57.